BMB532: Fundamental Biochemistry
- Have knowledge of basic mathematics and physics that include logarithms and exponential functions, linear algebra, first order differential equations, and basic physical variables (e.g.pressure, force, temperature, etc).
- Have knowledge in basic chemistry, including chemical reactions, association constants, pH, ionic strength, solution theory.
- Have knowledge of basic biological chemistry (incl. structures of biological molecules (nucleic acids, proteins, lipids), the organization of cells and subcellular organelles, structures of biological membranes, glycolysis, cellular respiration).
- Be able to use basic chemistry laboratory equipment (pipettes, other volumetric material).
- to give the student a thorough introduction and basic skills in the kinetic and thermodynamic principles that underlie metabolic pathways and their regulation and
- to present to the student the metabolic pathways and their regulation.
The course builds on the knowledge acquired in the courses FF502 and FF503, and gives an academic basis for studying the topics biophysics and bioimaging, metabolic and hormonal regulation, prokaryote and eukaryote metabolism, bioanalytical techniques that are part of the degree.
In relation to the competence profile of the degree it is the explicit focus of the course to:
- Give the competence to study processes that involve enzymes, biological membranes and to study metabolism
- Give skills to use spectrophotometry and oxymetry
- Give knowledge and understanding of membranes and enzymes and their integration into metabolism
Expected learning outcome
- use theoretical and practical methods from chemical kinetics and enzyme kinetics to determine characteristic constants such as zero, first and second order rate constants and KM values and turnover numbers (kcat) for enzymes
- use the theory of chemical kinetics and enzyme kinetics to set up rate expressions for uncatalyzed and catalysed chemical reactions
- employ classical thermodynamics on biological problems
- explain how the activities of enzymes are regulated, including allosteric effects and the effect of pH
- explain different models to interpret the structure of biological membranes.
- explain the thermodynamics of transport of molecules and ions across biological membranes (Fick law of diffusion; passive and active transport)
- identify the chemical components of biological membranes and describe the chemical structure of lipids.
- describe the thermodynamical aspects of lipid self-aggregation in aqueous solutions
- identify different membranous structures (lipid polymorphism) and use thermodynamics principles (second law) to explain membrane phase transitions.
- explain phase diagrams for lipid mixtures (Gibbs phase rule and lever rule)
- describe experimental techniques to study enzymes and membranes, including spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry and differential scanning calorimetry.
- explain the reaction mechanisms of a few selected enzyme catalyzed processes
- describe the binding of ligands to membrane receptors
- describe the thermodynamic and kinetic foundation of metabolism and explain the importance of free energy and equilibrium constants in the coupling of biochemical reactions and the role of ATP in this coupling
- describe the transport of glucose and lipids in the blood and how they are taken up by cells
- describe metabolites, enzymes and coenzymes from glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the citric acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle and the principles for regulation and integration of these pathways
- describe the light reactions and the mechanism of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis
- describe the pentose phosphate pathway and its general regulation in terms of metabolites, enzymes and coenzymes
- describe fatty acid metabolism and its regulation in terms of metabolites, enzymes and coenzymes
- describe the action of the hormones insulin, glucagon and epinephrine on metabolism of brain, muscles, liver and adipose tissue
- describe the mechanism underlying the hormonal influence on the blood’s content of glucose and fatty acids
- Thermodynamics, including the first and second law of thermodynamics with emphasis on entropy
- Experimental techniques in biochemistry and biophysics, including spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy/microscopy
- Elementary chemical kinetics
- Simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics
- Two substrate reactions
- Cooperativity and allostery
- Regulation of enzyme activity
- Examples of enzyme reaction mechanisms
- Model for biological membranes
- Chemical composition of biological membranes
- Chemical structures of lipid molecules
- Membrane polymorphism and lipid mixture’s phase diagrams
- Diffusion of compounds through lipid membranes
- Active and passive membrane transport
- Ion channels
- Membrane receptors
- Metabolism: basic terms and principles
- Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
- Citric acid cycle
- Oxidative phosphorylation
- Glycogen metabolism
- Lipid metabolism, including fatty acid synthesis and degradation
- Photosynthesis: light reactions and CO2 fixation
- Integration of metabolism
- L. Folke Olsen: Enzyme kinetics, Provided via Blackboard.
- Daniel Wüstner: Notes, Provided via Blackboard.
- David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox: LEHNINGER: PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY, 7th edition, 2017 W. H. Freeman and Company.
See Blackboard for syllabus lists and additional literature references.
Prerequisites for participating in the exam a)
Lab. work and reports
The prerequisite examination is a prerequisite for participation in exam element a)
Exam element a)
|Type||Prerequisite name||Prerequisite course|
|Examination part||Prerequisites for participating in the exam a)||N200000101, BMB532: Fundamental Biochemistry|
Indicative number of lessons
- Tutorials: 26 hours
- Laboratory exercises: 16 hours
- Independent study of textbooks
- Written homework and lab report
- Independent follow-up on the intro and study phases
- Preparation for laboratory work
- Preparation for exam
|Lars Folke Olsenemail@example.com|